Pneumatic science, deriving from the Greek πνευματικός ("pneumatikos, that is coming from the wind") is the discipline that deals with the movement of forces through the use of gas under pressure which is often represented by compressed air. Together with the discipline of mechanics, electricity and hydraulics, pneumatic energy constitutes the four types of energy that man uses for automation. In antiquity, 2,500 years before Christ, bellows were used and in its evolution, man began to compress the atmosphere in the metallurgical sector, in the mining sector and in the construction of the first working organs. Although, therefore, the use of this type of force has long been known to mankind, it was only in the nineteenth century that it was studied systematically and was adopted at an industrial level for the operation and control of machinery so as to be able to obtain faster and more precise processes, also eliminating some rather difficult processes to be performed manually and making the processes easier.
What is it
To understand the importance of compressed air in modern technology, it is necessary to think, for a moment, about the details of its applications. We will not pretend to draw up a technical treatise on its use here, but to have a broader idea of its uses: in creating rectilinear movements it is used in lifting and lowering; in the supply of fastening tools, in opening and closing operations, in pneumatic presses, on industrial robots, in transport and pushing operations and in braking systems. In creating rotary movements, compression is useful on screwdrivers, grinders, drills, shears. Instead, as a means of verification it enters the processes of checking the position of the tools on the working machines, in the work sequences, in the locking and in the deceleration.