The vine is one of the plants that were cultivated by man already in antiquity; it is mentioned in the Bible, and archelogical findings testify to its cultivation since the Neolithic period. It is a climbing shrub, native to Middle Eastern Asia, now widespread in cultivation on most of the globe.
The vines are deciduous shrubs, which therefore lose their foliage during the cold season, this allows them to survive even at very low temperatures, close to -18 / -20 ° C. Vine shrubs have been cultivated by man for centuries, so in the orchard we can only find hybrids, modified by the many years of cultivation.
Their bearing, we said, is climbing; the thin elastic and compact wooden stems are poorly branched, but each branch reaches the length of several meters; the foliage is palmate, with indented margin, light green in color and large in size. The flowers appear in spring, gathered in large clusters; the flowers are followed by rounded berries, called berries, very juicy and turgid, which make the cluster pendulous. There are various colored berries, from light green to deep dark purple.
The cultivation of the vine
The success of the vine in cultivation is certainly due to winemaking, a process by which, following fermentation, the fruit produces wine, a moderately alcoholic drink; in fact, however, much of the success of the vine is also due to the ease of cultivation and the versatility of this plant.
The vines to produce a sweet and juicy fruit need to be placed in a sunny place; to allow the whole plant to enjoy many hours of sunshine, the vines are generally grown in rows; in this way most of the fruits can receive the sun's rays for a good period of time during the day.
The vine plant seems to be satisfied with any soil, managing to develop even in stony and little nutrient-rich soils, as long as the soil is light and well drained, and that the water does not stagnate; in reality, as winemakers know well, the nature of the soil deeply characterizes the fruits, and consequently the wine obtained from them. Once the vines are placed in a sunny place, generally this does not require particular temperatures in order to be able to develop at its best, even if late frost can damage the flowering or the young fruits. In reality this phenomenon occurs rarely, in fact there are vine cultivations from northern Germany to the Mediterranean area, with excellent cultivation successes; This is also thanks to the fact that "autochthonous" vines are cultivated in every nation, which have been hybridized for centuries to better adapt to the climate of the area.